Always a maximum of 1% fee!
1 Percent Pool was the first pool to ever make a block after decentralization started.
Thanks to all delegators for trusting us, and a big thank you to all the other great pool operators for supporting Cardano!
See a list of our pools below, and read our FAQ for a lot more info about staking and 1 Percent Pool
Tickers: 1PCT and 1PCT[0-9]
All our pools have 111k pledge each and 1% fee.
Staking your ADA is about securing the Cardano network, and earning rewards for doing so. The 1 Percent Pool believes that anyone should be able to earn great rewards from staking.
For this reason, we have dedicated ourselves to charge a maximum of 1% variable fee – ALWAYS!
This is among the absolute lowest stake pool fees you will be able to find, and will ensure you the highest rewards from staking your ADA.
Where are my rewards?
The way the Cardano protocol works, is by taking a snapshot of the delegation status for all wallets between each epoch. The delegation choice will then become active 2 epochs later, and the rewards will the be paid out after 1 additional epoch.
As an example, the cycle is as follows:
Epoch 215: Stake is delegated
Epoch 216: Snapshot is taken
Epoch 217: Delegation is active
Epoch 218: Rewards are calculated
Epoch 219: Rewards are paid
In this example, you should see the first rewards in the beginning of Epoch 219. The payment schedule is the same for all pools on Cardano, as the payment of rewards is handled 100% by the protocol it self. Pool operators have zero influence on the payments – we simply make the blocks, and the protocol does the rest.
All pools have 1% fee – as they ALWAYS will!
Cardano implemented a minimum pool cost of 340 ADA. There is no way around this for any stake pool. This amount is subtracted from the total pool rewards after each epoch (5 days on mainnet), and then the rewards are divided between the delegators.
If the total pool rewards for an epoch is 50.000 ADA, we first subtract 340 ADA as the pool cost. That leaves 49.660 ADA as rewards.
Based on these 49.660 ADA, the pool takes 1% (496,6 ADA) and the rest of the rewards (49.163,4 ADA) are then distributed to the delegators.
The total pool rewards for an epoch depends on the saturation level of the pool.
1PCT pools running
Uptime of pools so far
Among the best paying pools
Why Select Us?
Max 1% fee ensures you high rewards, that are among the best-in-class of all stake pools available.
The stake pool cluster is securely setup, is fully automated and monitored 24/7.
Whenever the needs of running the Cardano stake pools changes, our setup will scale with the requirements.
1 Percent Pool will always adjust the fee to stay competitive the market, and will go below 1% when needed. But always max 1%!
There are backup servers always standing by and ready to automatically take over, in case anything happens to the primary.
1 Percent Pool has a proven track record of performance and trust from the ITN. You can be confident in our performance!
1 Percent Pool was started in the beginning of the ITN, and has since then been at the very top of the best performing pool. We have over 6 months of proven reliability, and we are here to stay!
The concept is very simple: We provide best-in-class stake pool performance at a very good price point. If you are looking to maximise your staking rewards, and want complete confidence in the reliability and trustworthiness of the operators, you select 1 Percent Pool.
Many things can go wrong, if you select a bad operator. The pool could fail, blocks be missed or it could completely go out of business. This means missing out on your staking rewards. The operator could increase the fees without you noticing, which means less rewards for you.
You want to select a pool that you know will be here forever, a pool that will never increase its fees and has a proven track record of reliability and performance.
With 1 Percent Pool you can just set-and-forget. When you come back 12 months from now, all your rewards will be there waiting for you.
Part of the security setup of 1 Percent Pool is staying anonymous. It’s much harder to attack someone, when you don’t know who they are.
That said, you should have some knowledge about the person you’re staking with.
I’m living in northern Europe, and I have more than 15 years of experience within business and IT entrepreneurship, and a track record of great performance.
Ever since 2017, I’ve had an immense love for Cardano. What the project tries to achieve is truly inspiring and worth fighting for.
ITN stands for Incenticized Test Net. It was 6 months of test net for Shelley, that was designed to test the game theory and incentive scheme. It started in December 2019. Many pools operators gained valuable experience in running a pool there, and established a reputation. The rewards from the test net were transferred to the main net, which made the test net incentivized – you earned real money from staking on the test net.
Pledge is the amount of ADA a stake pool has guaranteed to keep in its account. It’s a way of proving to the delegators that the stake pool is serious and has ‘skin in the game’. It also has a small influence in the rewards a pool will pay. The factor is – however – very small. You need around 5-10m of ADA pledged, before you can start to feel the effects. You should be aware of pools with a low pledge, as it indicates a low dedication.
All our pools in 1 Percent Pool has a pledge of 111.000 ADA each.
It sounds tempting to go for the lowest possible fee, but just like very cheap items on eBay, it’s rarely worth it.
In order for a stake pool to generate the maximum rewards over time, you need a professional and sophisticated setup. You need to make sure that the pools are highly connected to the network, that the hardware is adequate, that the internet connection is optimal, that the software is configured correctly and that the pool software is updated frequently. You need to build redundancy and automation, to have multiple internet connections, to have UPS backup power for the hardware and protect against attacks. You need a high level of automation and monitoring, to always keep the pools running perfectly, and in case of any breakdown, have a backup server standing by, that will automatically take over.
The income from a 0% pool is simply not enough to cover the expense of the above mentioned setup. For this reason, the 0% pools do not have this kind of setup, but instead run a much simpler operation. This means that they will perform worse over time, and hence pay less rewards. If you do the math, a 0% pool will give you worse rewards, even though it looks better on paper.
You risk having the pool operator raise the fees after they’ve attracted enough stake, or having the pool simply shut down because it’s not profitable. You don’t want to constantly have to check if the pool is still at 0% fee and still running, and risk staking to a dead pool or suddenly paying a much higher fee.
Pools with 0% fee are furthermore not incentivised to perform their best. The operator only makes money from the first block each epoch, and he then has no incentive to keep the pools performing well. There is no reason for him to make sure the rewards are at the absolute max, since it means extra costs for him, but no extra income. A pool with 1% fee has a great incentive to make sure the pools are always at their very max performance, and is willing to invest in it.
1 Percent Pool is operating 11 pools in total. The tickers are 1PCT, 1PCT0, 1PCT1, 1PCT2, 1PCT3, 1PCT4, 1PCT5, 1PCT6, 1PCT7, 1PCT8 and 1PCT9.
Since you cannot own a ticker in a decentralised network, it’s possible for anyone to try and imitate the 1PCT brand. There is a solution on the way for having unique tickers though. There is another pool that has started using 1PCTA, B, C and so on – those are not associated with 1 Percent Pool.
Cardano does so many things right, and is built on a solid foundation of research and scientific rigor. It’s fantastic when it comes to hard science, but it’s different when it comes to soft science. You can not create a mathematical proof when it comes to the game theory that shapes the human incentives for actions. Since Cardano is highly dependent on delegators acting rationally, this becomes one of the key risk areas for the survival of Cardano.
For Cardano to stay secure, we need:
– Informed delegators who knows about the concepts of fee, saturation, rewards, pledge and so forth.
– Rational delegators whose actions you can mostly predict, based on human nature. You can only have this, if they are informed.
– Protocol parameters that favour true decentralisation, and helps protect against Sybil attacks.
Since 2017, I have personally been most worried about the game theory around the decentralisation of the protocol. What would stop an entity from creating 1000 pools, get a majority of the stake by having no fees at all, and then start censoring the network? Since this, in my eyes, was the greatest threat to the project, it had to be given more focus.
When the ITN launched, I set out to test how delegators would react to an entity that openly created a large number of pools with very low fees. Since it was a test net, there would be no major harm to the network, but there would be immense learnings and opportunities to adjust the game theory model to secure the network properly. In the beginning, I simply acted like any smart Sybil attacker would do, if they tried to gain a majority of the stake. The first 11 pools were filled within weeks.
At the time, the Cardano Foundation was the gate keepers of the tickers, and had to approve a ticker in order for it to show up in Daedalus. When I tried to further test the vulnerability of the network, I was made aware of that the ITN was not tuned for Sybil attack resistance at all, which defeated the whole purpose of trying. I couldn’t perform an accurate test, because none of it was implemented. Hence I dropped the idea of trying to accumulate more stake, and focused on the performance of the pools instead.
The experiment did show how delegators could easily be attracted by low fees, but there is another major factor to look at, before judging the experiment. At the beginning of the ITN, the software was very shaky, and often failed. It was being built as a whole separate codebase, that allowed for quick iterations and development, so we could test the incentive schemes before main net. This meant that it was far from a level playing field for the operators. The first weeks and months were all about writing smart scripts to restart the software at the right times, to make sure it could actually make a block once it was time. 1 Percent Pool had a huge edge here, as I had figured out a number of rules that would make it perform very well, despite all the bugs. It involved a lot of monitoring, restarting each node 15 minutes before a block, a “private” bootstrap cluster to make the software start quickly and much, much more.
Since 1 Percent Pool was one of the very few great performing pools in the beginning, it was very natural that delegators rushed into the pools. The same would have happened if the fees were at 5%. For this reason, the test was not really accurate at all. Thankfully, the software we have on main net now is very stable and it’s (almost) a completely level playing field. It didn’t make sense to share the restart scripts with the community at the time, since it would work against the Sybil experiment, and once the experiment was dropped, many of the bugs had been ironed out. I did however share an article about how to improve the bootstrap time for the nodes and optimise the performance, which can be found here.
1 Percent Pool is now no longer an experiment, but an active protector of the protocol. It makes it much harder for a bad actor to try and perform a Sybil attack, and in these early days, we make sure that a lot of the stake is secure with a good actor. Once we see a higher number of reputable pools in the months and years to come, the network will be less at risk.
The focus of the pool, apart from best-in-class performance and low fees, is to study and prevent the possibility of Sybil attacks. I’m actively working with IOG/IOHK on this issue and sharing ideas, in order to further harden the resistance of such attacks. This is our way of contributing to the community and protocol.
Yes! 1 Percent Pool is being operated in a very professional manner, and is running on a mix of bare metal and cloud servers. There are multiple backup servers standing by, ready to take over automatically, in case the main servers go down for any reason. The servers have UPS backup power and multiple internet connections, so they keep running even if the power or internet is interrupted. The setup is highly secure, and uses a high number of relay nodes to make sure it’s well connected with the Cardano network.
The servers are monitored 24/7, and are highly automated. This means that what ever happens, the 1 Percent Pools will always be online and making their blocks on schedule. This is how the great performance and consistent high rewards are delivered to the delegators.
No. There is no point in that. The pools are operating flawlessly and the performance is always at the very top. With 1 Percent Pool, you simply stake and then stop worrying about it. You don’t have to do anything, and you can simply enjoy the rewards as they come.
Most other pools are using Twitter to beg for delegation, post performance updates and complain about random things. Do you really want to pay a higher fee to pay for the stake pool operators to spam your Twitter feed? Staking should be as simple as set-and-forget. You delegate, you get high rewards, simple as that.
Some pools do post useful articles on Twitter though (fx. Cardanians). 1 Percent Pool is however not about articles, but about maximising the rewards of the delegators, providing peace of mind and securing the Cardano network.
If you need any support, you can always use the email form below.
Yes! There are many good actors in the space, with different models and participation efforts. If you are not into the 1 Percent Pool concept, you should take a look at WEQNT, FROG, ATADA, LOVE, ANP, CRDNS, DIGI, SCAR, BCSH and PEGA (just to name a few). There are many other great operators out there.
There are many factors you should look out for, that indicates that a pool isn’t the best choice. Among these are:
-Pools with 0% fee (discussed in “Why should I not select a 0% pool” above)
-Pools with pledge below 50k ADA (Signals that they might not be serious about their operation, or have confidence in themselves).
-Pools that haven’t produced blocks yet (They might simply be new, but this can be a sign of bad performance).
-Pools without a website or option to contact them (Signals they might not run a serious operation)
Use the email form below, and you’ll get a response with 24 hours.
Feel free to ask for support, ask critical questions, request more information or send a nice greeting.